CleanerSolutions Database
Toxics Use Reduction Institute · Surface Solutions Laboratory
 
Toxics Use Reduction Institute




Surface Solutions Laboratory

Pollution Prevention Options Assessment System

Background Information

P2OASys

P2OASys allows companies to assess the potential environmental, worker, and public health impacts of alternative technologies aimed at reducing toxics use. The goal is more comprehensive and systematic thinking about the potential hazards posed by current and alternative processes identified during the TUR planning process. The tool will assist companies in two ways:

  • To systematically examine the potential environmental and worker impacts of TUR options in a comprehensive manner, examining the total impacts of process changes, rather than simply those of chemical changes
  • To compare TUR options with the company's current process based on quantitative and qualitative factors.

As part of the TURI Lab's evaluation process for health and safety, the lab uses P2OASys to input both quantitative and qualitative data on the chemical toxicity, ecological effects, physical properties, and changes in work organization as a result of the proposed option. Click on the hazard topic areas to see how they are assessed using P2OASys.


The following table includes the ranking protocol utilized by the P2OASys tool.

P2OASys Standardized Hazard Scores

    2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00
Acute human effects Units          
Inhalation LC50 ppm 10000.00 1000.00 150.00 15.00 <15
PEL/TLV ppm 200.00 100.00 25.00 5.00 <5
PEL/TLV (dusts/particles) mg/m3 10.00 5.00 1.00 0.10 <0.1
IDLH ppm 1000.00 500.00 50.00 10.00 <10
Respiratory irritation L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
Oral LD50 mg/kg 5000.00 500.00 50.00 5.00 <5
dermal irritation L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
skin absorption L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
dermal LD50 mg/kg 5000.00 500.00 50.00 5.00 <5
ocular irritation L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
Chronic human effects            top
Reference Dose RfD mg/kg/day 0.10 0.05 0.01 0.001 <0.001
carcinogen IARC/EPA Class 4,E 3,D 2B,C 2A,B 1,A
mutagen L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
reproductive effects L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
neurotoxicity L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
developmental effects L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
respir. sensistivity/disease L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
other chronic organ effects L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
Physical hazards            top
heat WBGT, °C 25.00 27.00 30.00 32.00 >32
noise generation dBA 80.00 85.00 85.00 90.00 >90.00
vibration m/S2 4.00 6.00 8.00 12.00 >12.00
ergonomic hazard L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
psychosocial hazard L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
Aquatic hazards            top
Water Quality Criteria (HWQC) mg/l >10 6-8 4-6 1-4 <1
aquatic LC50 mg/l 1000.00 50.00 1.00 0.10 <0.10
fish NOAEC mg/l 0.20 0.02 0.0020 0.0002 <0.0002
plant EC 50 mg/l 100.00 10.00 1.00 0.10 <0.1
observed ecological effects L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
Persistence/bioaccumulation            top
persistence  L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
BOD half-life days 4.00 10.00 100.00 500.00 >500
hydrolysis half-life days 4.00 10.00 100.00 500.00 >500
bioconcentration log kow 1.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 >6
bioconcentration factor (BCF) kg/l 10.00 100.00 200.00 1000.00 >1000
Atmospheric hazard            top
greenhouse gas Y/N N
      Y
ozone depletor ODP units N
      Y
acid rain formation Y/N N
      Y
NESHAP Y/N N
      Y
Disposal hazard            top
landfill L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
EPCRA reportable quantity lbs 5000.00 1000.00 100.00 10.00 1.00
incineration L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
recycling L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
Chemical hazard            top
vapor pressure mm Hg 0.10 1.00 10.00 100.00 >100
solubility in water mg/L          
specific gravity N/A          
flammability 0,1,2,3,4 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00
flash point °C 100.00 75.00 25.00 10.00 <10
reactivity 0,1,2,3,4 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00
pH pH units 7.00 6-7, 7-8 5-6, 8-9 3-5, 9-11 1-3, 11-14
corrosivity L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
High pressure system L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
High temperature system L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
mixture/reaction potential L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
odor threshold L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
volatile organic compound L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
Energy & resource use            top
non renewable resource L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
water use L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
energy use L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
Product hazard            top
upstream effects L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
consumer hazard L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
disposal hazard L/M/H L L/M M M/H H
Exposure potential            top
Exposure potential L/M/H L L/M M M/H H

If the displayed results on CleanerSolutions does not contain one of these fields, that means there was not enough information to make a judgement on that set of data.

For more information on this EH&S comparison tool, check out the information on TURI's website or contact the lab directly