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Toxics Use Reduction Institute · Surface Solutions Laboratory
 
Toxics Use Reduction Institute




Surface Solutions Laboratory

Trial Report



Trial Number 0

(Client Number 104, Project Number 1)

Trial Purpose: To compare surfactant levels

Date Run: 05/24/99

Experiment Procedure:
To compare surfactant levels of a cleaning solution before and after passing through separation equipment (Aqueous Recovery Resources, Inc., Suparator, oil-water seperator)
Three titrations were per sample were tested for nonionic surfactant content using Bama Chem Nonionic Surfactant Kit. The general procedure is as follows:
1. ADD APPROXIMATELY 25 ML OF WATER TO MIXING VIAL
2. ADD 8 DROPS OF INDICATOR SOLUTION TO VIAL. COLOR SHOULD BE GREEN.
3. ADD 15 DROPS OF 20% SULFURIC ACID TO VIAL (20 DROPS IF STRONGLY ALKALINE DETERGENTS ARE TESTED) AND SWIRL. COLOR SHOULD NOW BE PURPLE. (CAUTION: HANDLE THIS SOLUTION WITH CARE. IT IS CORROSIVE AND MAY CAUSE BURNS.)
4. ADD 0.5ML OF NONIONIC DETERGENT SOLUTION TO VIAL AND SWIRL, COLOR SHOULD NOW TURN BACK TO GREEN OR YELLOW-GREEN.
5. ADD TITRATING SOLUTION DROPWISE WHILE COUNTING UNTIL THE COLOR CHANGES TO A WINE-RED OR PURPLE. (ABOUT HALFWAY TO THE ENDPOINT THE COLOR WILL BE TAN OR LIGHT BROWN). NOTE THE NUMBER OF DROPS NEEDED AND MULTIPLY BY 0.5 TO GET % BY VOLUME OF NONIONIC DETERGENT. EACH DROP IS EQUIVALENT TO 0.0028 GRAMS OF SURFACTANT.

CHOOSE SAMPLE SIZE THAT WILL REQUIRE 10-20 DROPS OF TITRANT FOR BETTER ACCURACY. FOR VERY CONCENTRATED SURFACTANT SOLUTIONS USE A 0.10ML SAMPLE SO AS TO CONSERVE REAGENTS. FOR A 0.10ML SAMPLE USE A FACTOR OF 2.5.

FOR WEAKER SOLUTIONS:
1.00ML SAMPLE USE A FACTOR OF 0.25
10.00ML SAMPLE USE A FACTOR OF 0.025
100.00ML SAMPLE USE A FACTOR OF 0.0025

SOME INTERFERENCES - ACID SOLUBLE ANIONIC DETERGENTS CATIONIC DETERGENTS SOME AMINES STRONG OXIDIZERS
SUCH AS HYPOCHLORITES, NITRITES, ETC. HIGHLY CONCENTRATED DYES

Trial Results
When comparing the results of the influent and effluent to the initial clean cleaner, both samples had far less surfactant levels.  The two samples
still had noticeable levels of oil in them.  From the titration calculations, the effluent had higher amounts of surfactant than the influent.  Table
1 lists the average titration levels for the three samples.
Table 1.  Surfactant Calculations
Reading  Baseline  Influent  Effluent
1             40.0         3.25      4.25
2             37.5         3.25      4.00
3             42.5         3.50      4.29
Average 40.00        3.33      4.18

The data used to calculate the averages is listed in attached files.
?Data For Calculations
Experimenter          Marshall                                        For sample size          Factor          
Date          5/24/99                                                       Factor Calculation                    
Client                                                                           mL          f          ratio
Client Type          Consultant                                        0.5          0.5         0.25
SCL #          99-6104-01-5                                            1          0.25          0.25
Test Type          Nonionic                                           10           0.025        0.25
Cleaner Mfr          Church & Dwight Co                      100          0.0025      0.25
Product Name          Armakleen M-Aero  ?Clean?          2          0.125         0.25
Concentration Used          5          %                                                  
Drops Required              16                                                            
Sample Size                    2          mL                                                  
Wt of Surfactant          0.0448     grams                                                  
drop * f          2          % by volume of nonionic surfactant                    
Dilution correction       20                                                            
Total Surfactant          40                                                            
                                                                      
Mfr          Church & Dwight Co                                                  
Product          Armakleen M-Aero                                                  
Conc. %          5                                                            
Volume           2                                                            
Wt of Surf       0.0448          in Sample                                                  
% Surf.           2                   in Sample                                                  
Total Surf % 4         0          Full strength                                                  
?Clean 2?                                                            
Concentration Used     5          %                           For sample size          Factor          
Drops Required          15                                        Factor Calculation                    
Sample Size                2          mL                          mL          f          ratio
Wt of Surfactant          0.042   grams                      2          0.125          0.25
drop * f          1.875          % by volume of nonionic surfactant                    
Dilution correction          20                                                            
Total Surfactant          37.5                                                            
                                                                      
Mfr          Church & Dwight Co                                                  
Product          Armakleen M-Aero                                                  
Conc. %          5                                                            
Volume           2                                                            
Wt of Surf       0.042          in Sample                                                  
% Surf.           1.875          in Sample                                                  
Total Surf % 37.5          Full strength                                                  
?Clean 3?                                                            
Concentration Used          5          %                           For sample size          Factor          
Drops Required               17                                        Factor Calculation                    
Sample Size                     2          mL                          mL          f          ratio
Wt of Surfactant               0.0476  grams                     2          0.125          0.25
drop * f                             2.125          % by volume of nonionic surfactant                    
Dilution correction          20                                                            
Total Surfactant          42.5                                                            

Mfr          Church & Dwight Co                                                  
Product          Armakleen M-Aero                                                  
Conc. %          5                                                            
Volume           2                                                            
Wt of Surf       0.0476          in Sample                                                  
% Surf.           2.125            in Sample                                                  
Total Surf % 42.5          Full strength                                                  

Experimenter          Marshall                                       For sample size          Factor          
Date          5/24/99                                                      Factor Calculation          
Client                                                                          mL          f          ratio
Client Type          Consultant                                        0.5          0.5          0.25
SCL #          99-6104-01-5                                            1             0.25        0.25
Test Type          Nonionic                                            10             0.025       0.25
Cleaner Mfr          Church & Dwight Co                      100            0.0025     0.25
Product Name          Armakleen M-Aero Influent 1       20           0.0125      0.25
Concentration Used          5          %                                                  
Drops Required               13                                                            
Sample Size                    20          mL                                                  
Wt of Surfactant                0.0364  grams                                                  
drop * f                              0.1625          % by volume of nonionic surfactant                              
Dilution correction            20                                                            
Total Surfactant                 3.25                                                            
                                                                      
Mfr          Church & Dwight Co                                                  
Product          Armakleen M-Aero                                                  
Conc. %          5                                                            
Volume          20                                                            
Wt of Surf       0.0364          in Sample                                                  
% Surf.           0.1625          in Sample                                                  
Total Surf %  3.25               Full strength                                                  
                                                                      
Influent 2                                                                      
Concentration Used          5          %                              For sample size          Factor          
Drops Required               13                                          Factor Calculation          
Sample Size                    20          mL                           mL          f          ratio
Wt of Surfactant               0.0364 grams                     20          0.0125          0.25
drop * f                             0.1625          % by volume of nonionic surfactant                              
Dilution correction          20                                                            
Total Surfactant               3.25                                                            
                                                                      
Mfr          Church & Dwight Co                                                  
Product          Armakleen M-Aero                                                  
Conc. %            5                                                            
Volume            20                                                            
Wt of Surf          0.0364          in Sample                                                  
% Surf.              0.1625          in Sample                                                  
Total Surf %      3.25          Full strength                                                  
                                                                      
Influent 3                                                                      
Concentration Used          5          %                           For sample size          Factor          
Drops Required               14                                        Factor Calculation          
Sample Size                    20          mL                         mL          f          ratio
Wt of Surfactant                0.0392 grams                   20          0.0125          0.25
drop * f                              0.175    % by volume of nonionic surfactant                              
Dilution correction            20                                                            
Total Surfactant                3.5                                                            
Mfr          Church & Dwight Co                                                  
Product          Armakleen M-Aero                                                  
Conc. %          5                                                            
Volume          20                                                            
Wt of Surf        0.0392   in Sample                                                  
% Surf.            0.175      in Sample                                                  
Total Surf %    3.5          Full strength                                                  

Experimenter          Marshall                                       For sample size          Factor          
Date          5/24/99                                                      Factor Calculation                    
Client                                                                          mL          f          ratio
Client Type          Consultant                                        0.5          0.5          0.25
SCL #            99-6104-01-5                                          1            0.25         0.25
Test Type          Nonionic                                            10           0.025       0.25
Cleaner Mfr          Church & Dwight Co                      100           0.0025    0.25
Product Name          Armakleen M-Aero Effluent 1       20          0.0125    0.25
Concentration Used          5          %                                                  
Drops Required               17                                                            
Sample Size                   20          mL                                                  
Wt of Surfactant               0.0476  grams                                                  
drop * f                             0.2125   % by volume of nonionic surfactant                              
Dilution correction           20                                                            
Total Surfactant               4.25                                                            
                                                                      
Mfr          Church & Dwight Co                                                  
Product          Armakleen M-Aero                                                  
Conc. %            5                                                            
Volume            20                                                            
Wt of Surf          0.0476          in Sample                                                  
% Surf.               0.2125          in Sample                                                  
Total Surf %       4.25              Full strength                                                  

Effluent 2                                                                      
Concentration Used          5          %                              For sample size          Factor          
Drops Required                9          *less than 10 drops    Factor Calculation                    
Sample Size                   15          mL                             mL          f          ratio
Wt of Surfactant               0.0252  grams                        15          0.016667          0.25
drop * f                             0.15      % by volume of nonionic surfactant                              
Dilution correction          20                                                            
Total Surfactant               3                                                            
                                                                      
Mfr          Church & Dwight Co                                                  
Product          Armakleen M-Aero                                                  
Conc. %                         5                                                            
Volume                        15                                                            
Wt of Surf                      0.0252          in Sample                                                  
% Surf.                          0.15              in Sample                                                  
Total Surf %                  3                   Full strength                                                  
                                                                      
Effluent 3                                                                      
Concentration Used          5          %                                                  
Drops Required              14                                                                  For sample size          Factor          
Sample Size                   17.5          mL                                                Factor Calculation                    
Wt of Surfactant               0.0392    grams                                                mL          f          ratio
drop * f                             0.2          % by vol  nonionic surfactant          17.5          0.014286          0.25
Dilution correction          20                                                            
Total Surfactant               4                                                            
                                                                      
Mfr          Church & Dwight Co                                                  
Product          Armakleen M-Aero                                                  
Conc. %                           5                                                            
Volume                          17.5                                                            
Wt of Surf                       0.0392          in Sample                                                  
% Surf.                           0.2                in Sample                                                  
Total Surf %                   4          Full strength                                                  

Effluent 4                                                                      
Concentration Used          5          %                             For sample size          Factor          
Drops Required               15                                          Factor Calculation                    
Sample Size                    17.5          mL                        mL          f          ratio
Wt of Surfactant                0.042      grams                    17.5          0.014286          0.25
drop * f                              0.214286 % by volume of nonionic surfactant                              
Dilution correction            20                                                            
Total Surfactant                 4.285714                                                            
Mfr          Church & Dwight Co                                                  
Product          Armakleen M-Aero                                                  
Conc. %          5                                                            
Volume          17.5                                                            
Wt of Surf        0.042             in Sample                                                  
% Surf.            0.214286        in Sample                                                  
Total Surf %   4.285714         Full strength


Success Rating
A cleanliness study, addressing only various analytical techniques.

Conclusion
After titrating the samples provided, the Suparator appears to not decrease the surfactant concentrations. Effluent surfactant levels were found to be slightly higher than the influent levels, but both were far less than the original amounts.