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Toxics Use Reduction Institute · Surface Solutions Laboratory
 
Toxics Use Reduction Institute




Surface Solutions Laboratory

Trial Report



Trial Number 10

(Client Number 155, Project Number 1)

Trial Purpose: Summary of Findings

Date Run: 10/09/01

Experiment Procedure:


Trial Results
Phase 1 Laboratory Testing
The focus of the first project was to identify a replacement cleaner for toluene to remove wax. A total of sixteen products were evaluated using
immersion cleaning.  Through visual and gravimetric analysis, four cleaning products were found to be successful in removing the wax from the ceramic
and glass substrates and are listed below in Table 1.

Table 1.  Successful Wax Cleaning
Company                    Product                  Classification             Efficiency
Envirosolutions Inc     Bio T Max             Natural Terpene          99.36
Solvent Kleene            D Greeze 500 LO  Hydrocarbon Solvent   76.16
Buckeye International Shopmaster RC      Ester blend                  87.89
Universal Photonics    Uni Clear I             D-limonene Terpene  100.01

Phase 2 Laboratory Testing 
Having found a replacement for toluene in wax removal, the next step was to find alternative cleaners for the other contaminants used at the facility.
 The use of the first of the contaminants was as an adhesive to be used in place of the current wax.  The last two contaminants were both polishing
slurries used during the initial stages of manufacturing of the ceramic base materials.

Cyrstalbond 509
In an attempt to limit the amount of cleaning products, the successful wax cleaners were selected for evaluated for cleaning during this phase of
testing.  Only one of the cleaners was successful in removing the Crystalbond 509 adhesive.  Shopmaster RC removed 94.83%.  Additional products were
also investigated for the removal of the Crystalbond 509.  A total of twelve products were evaluated.  Table 2 lists the successful cleaners for the
509 adhesive.
Table 2.  Crystalbond 509 Cleaning
Company                    Product              Classification              Efficiency
Buckeye International Shopmaster RC  Ester blend                 94.83
DuPont                       DBE-4                Ester blend                 99.61
Ecolink Inc.               Safe Strip            N-methyl pyrrolidone  98.97
Alconox Inc.             Luminox               Neutral Aqueous        97.49*
*Required 20 minutes additional cleaning time

Nalco Chemical Co Nalco 2350 Polishing Slurry
Again, an attempt was made to evaluate the successful cleaners from the previous trials for the next contaminant. None of the previous products were
capable of removing a majority of the polishing slurry from the ceramic coupons.  Several alkaline aqueous products were found to very effective in
removing nearly all of the slurry with fifteen minutes of soaking at 120 F.  Table 3 lists the effective products.
Table 3.   Nalco Chemical Co Nalco 2350 Polishing Slurry Cleaning
Company                     Product                    Classification              Efficiency
Innovative Organic      Amberclean LC         Alkaline Aqueous       99.72
International Products Micro 90                     Alkaline Aqueous       99.38
LPS Industries             LPS Precision            Alkaline Aqueous       99.50
MacDermid                  ND 17                        Alkaline Aqueous       99.62
Oakite Products           Inproclean 3800         Alkaline Aqueous       99.36
US Polychemical         Polyspray Jet790 xs   Alkaline Aqueous       99.42
Amax                           Safety First                Semi-aqueous Terpene 99.88

Saint Gobain Industrial Ceramics Water Based Alumina
The same seven cleaners were also effective in cleaning the second polishing slurry, removing over 94% of the alumina from the ceramic coupons in five
minutes of cleaning.  ND 17 and LPS were the most effective removing just over 97%.  The results are listed in Table 4.
Table 4. Saint Gobain Industrial Ceramics Water Based Alumina Cleaning
Company                     Product                      Classification              Efficiency
Innovative Organics     Amberclean LC          Alkaline Aqueous           94.50
International Products  Micro 90                      Alkaline Aqueous           94.11
LPS Industries              LPS Precision             Alkaline Aqueous           97.30
MacDermid                   ND 17                         Alkaline Aqueous           97.31
Oakite Products            Inproclean 3800          Alkaline Aqueous           94.24
US Polychemical          Polyspray Jet790 xs    Alkaline Aqueous           95.84
Amax                            Safety First                 Semi-aqueous Terpene  95.09

Phase 3 FTIR Analysis of Rejected Parts
The final project conducted at the lab was to determine the source of the contamination on rejected parts.  The lab used Fourier Transform Infrared
Spectrometry in an attempt to identify the possible contaminants on the ceramic and gold pieces. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy correlates
vibrational energy to a compound's molecular signature. Similar to other high-tech methods such as GC (gas chromatography), the curves generated in
this analytical technique are both quantitative for species identification (the placement of the curve on the electromagnetic spectrum) and
qualitative for amounts (the area under the curve).  Interpretation of graphs can be difficult due to the presence of interfering peaks. 
It appears that several of the supplied contaminated parts did have some of the wax remaining on them after the toluene cleaning. In addition most of
the parts had toluene residue as well.  The FT-IR readings made by SCL should not be considered as a final determination as to the identification of
the source of contamination. Comparisons are listed in Table 5.

Table 5. FTIR Analysis
Sample Source   Observations-Comparison
1           A           Toluene
2           A           Toluene
3           B           Toluene & IPA & maybe Wax
4           B           Wax & Toluene
5           C           Wax & IPA
6           C           Wax & IPA
7           D           Wax & Toluene
8           A           Wax & Toluene

Vendor Contact Information
Company names, contact numbers and addresses are listed in Table 6.
Table 6.  Contact Information for Successful Cleaning Chemistries
COMPANY                        CONTACT Number  ADDRESS                       LOCATION         STATE      ZIP
Alconox Inc                     1-212-532-4040 x60   9 East 40th Street              New York                NY         10016
Amax Corporation             1-800-662-0023         960 S. Third Street             Louisville                KT         40203
Buckeye International Inc   1-314-291-1900         2700 Wagner Place             Maryland Heights    MO        63043
DuPont Nylon                    1-800-231-0998                                               Wilmington            DE         19898
Ecolink Inc                      1-800-886-8240         1481 Rock Mountain Blvd.  Stone Mountain      GA        30083
EnviroSolutions Inc           1-203-452-7225         232 Main Street                    Monroe                  CT         06468
Innovative Organics           1-714-701-3900         4790 East Wesley Drive        Anaheim                CA        92807
International Products Corp 1-609-386-8770         P.O. Box 70                          Burlington              NJ         08016
LPS Laboratories Inc          1-800-241-8334         101 Stagecoach Dr.               Lancaster                MA       01523
MacDermid Inc                 1-203-575-5726         245 Freight Street                 Waterbury               CT        06702
Oakite Products Inc            1-908-508-2107         50 Valley Road                      Berkeley Heights     NJ         07922
Solvent Kleene Inc              1-978-531-2279         131 1/2 Lynnfield Street       Peabody                   MA        01960
Universal Photonics            1-516-935-4000         495 West John Street            Hicksville                 NY        11801
US Polychemical Corp         1-800-356-5530         584 Chestnut Ridge Road     Chestnut Ridge         NY        10977


Success Rating
Final Report.

Conclusion