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Toxics Use Reduction Institute · Surface Solutions Laboratory
 
Toxics Use Reduction Institute




Surface Solutions Laboratory

Trial Report



Trial Number 13

(Client Number 244, Project Number 1)

Trial Purpose: To determine the coefficient of friction for additional floor finishes.

Date Run: 06/24/05

Experiment Procedure:
Control of Moisture Content and Temperature
The moisture content at the time of testing will influence results due to the hydroscopic nature of the base materials. Therefore, efforts must be taken to ensure that the moisture content and temperature remain constant during the evaluation period. Ideally, the sample floor should be kept at 65+/-1% relative humidity and 68+/-6 F.

During laboratory testing, conditions were slightly drier, 40% relative humidity, but the temperature was within the given temperature range ~70 F).

Sample Preparation
The flooring material supplied was Hardwood flooring made from Red Oak. The boards were ?? thick, 2 ?? wide and cut into 8? sections. Some pieces of the flooring had to be sanded prior to making initial thickness readings to remove residual packing tape adhesive. With the boards cut into 8? coupons, three readings were made using a Brown & Sharpe Micrometer to measure each coupons initial board thickness. Each reading was made to 0.001? and the three values were averaged to give a baseline thickness for the coupons. In addition to the thickness baseline, baselines were established for Gloss, Coefficient of Friction, Impact, Small Area Loads. Procedures for each baseline measurements followed the procedures to be outlined.

Following the establishment of the baselines, three coupons were coated with a supplied floor finish according to the manufacturers? specifications. The finish was applied using a 1? Pure Bristle 1500 paint brush. To ensure consistent coating application, the finish was leveled off using a 10 mils Precision Gage & Tool Co Dow Film Caster. Three coats were used for each floor finish as this was common number of coating layers suggested by the various manufacturers. Each coating layer was allowed to dry for 2 hours prior to the application of the next coat. Completed coupons were allowed to sit for a minimum period of 24 hours before performance evaluations were conducted.

Coefficient of Friction
The ASTM specified apparatus was replaced with an IMASS, Inc SP-102B-3M90 Slip/Peel Tester (Figure 1). Two types of friction coefficients were measured using this instrument. The first, Static CoF, was determined by obtaining the force required to move the specimen from a stationary position. The second, Sliding CoF (or Kinetic), was found by measuring the average force required to maintain movement at a certain rate. Measured forces will have peaks and valleys in the amount of force needed to keep moving. Average these values results and dividing by the weight of the object will result in the desired coefficient.

Figure 1. IMASS Slip/Peel Tester

The Slip/Peel tester was first adjusted to ensure that the device was properly calibrated for the sled weight being used. A coupon was then placed and clamped onto the bed of the device. The speed of the bed was set to 45?/min. The instrument records two values, the peak, the valley and calculates the average. The device was run three times per coupon for measuring the Static CoF and three times to measure the Kinetic CoF. Each coupon?s value was averaged and then the values for each finish (three coupon averages) were averaged to get one value for the Static Coefficient of Friction and one value for the Kinetic Coefficient of Friction. These values for coated samples were compared to the CoF for the same uncoated coupons.

Coefficient of Friction = Ratio of tractive (pulling) force to the normal force (sled weight): CoF = F/N = (Tractive force)/(Normal Force) = (meter reading)/(sled weight)

Trial Results
Product ID  Products Tested:
1           Hydro 202 Satin
6           SafeCoat Satin
7           SafeCoat Gloss

Uncoated CoF Readings
                 Static            Kinetic     
Product  Coupon  Peak Valley Ave   Peak Valley Ave
1        49      706   515   524   561   502   516
                 656   496   502   524   456   487
                 721   493   498   533   476   485
         50      781   499   532   535   489   512
                 681   498   519   531   485   512
                 688   497   515   525   491   506
         51      715   532   533   551   536   542
                 745   515   524   551   529   540
                 775   517   522   555   537   536
6         2      838   607   648   645   580   609
                 734   586   629   642   587   622
                 759   588   627   654   577   612
          3      833   612   619   627   590   597
                 798   578   593   594   578   584
                 813   577   590   600   568   583
          4      729   536   553   577   525   533
                 697   506   530   558   513   525
                 748   530   538   564   516   529
7        11      777   538   624   647   538   614
                 769   528   613   642   545   616
                 807   542   610   639   541   614
         12      869   619   647   636   587   610
                 880   605   626   636   574   604
                 864   581   623   636   574   604
         13      771   548   566   563   526   537
                 698   551   562   551   520   528
                 744   536   561   554   521   538

Averages    Static                 Kinetic     
Product     Peak  Valley Average   Peak   Valley Average
1           694   501    508       539    478    496
            717   498    522       530    488    510
            745   521    526       552    534    539
Product Ave 719   507    519       541    500    515
6           777   594    635       647    581    614
            815   589    601       607    579    588
            482   345    356       374    343    351
Product Ave 691   509    530       543    501    518
7           784   536    616       643    541    615
            871   602    632       636    578    606
            481   362    374       368    347    355
Product Ave 712   500    541       549    489    525

Coated CoF Readings  
                 Static                  Kinetic     
Product  Coupon  Peak   Valley Average   Peak  Valley Average
1        49       859    636    677       807   664    723
                  891    667    694       821   678    728
                  833    695    710       794   669    729
         50      1485   1024   1169      1228   986   1097
                 1261   1001   1126      1172   979   1084
                 1212    969   1097      1178   956   1079
         51      1021    765    877       996   869    947
                 1000    895    934      1100   928   1019
                 1037    891    965      1062   916   1000
6         2       829    603    628       646   571    589
                  750    502    621       804   582    607
                  813    434    620       658   572    599
          3       827    578    620       624   557    593
                  858    577    604       613   565    593
                  935    574    601       618   587    590
          4       936    571    613       625   550    581
                  885    554    589       657   544    574
                  812    547    584       664   545    571
7        11      1036    605    749       940   619    759
                  834    708    735       855   604    761
                 1046    728    761       975   736    761
         12       988    569    783      1067   631    800
                 1184    553    789      1065   657    797
                 1227    564    789      1047   779    801
         13       920    577    714       977   582    730
                 1031    634    720       995   613    740
                  892    493    735       743   698    720

Averages         Static                  Kinetic     
Product          Peak   Valley Average   Peak   Valley Average
Hydro 202 Satin   861    666    694       807    670    727
                 1319    998   1131      1193    974   1087
                 1019    850    925      1053    904    989
                 1067    838    917      1018    849    934
SafeCoat Satin    797    513    623       703    575    598
                  873    576    608       618    570    592
                  878    557    595       649    546    575
                  849    549    609       657    564    589
SafeCoat Gloss    972    680    748       923    653    760
                 1133    562    787      1060    689    799
                  948    568    723       905    631    730
                 1018    603    753       963    658    763


Success Rating
A cleanliness study, addressing only various analytical techniques.

Conclusion
Both SafeCoat BP Gloss and Capitol Hydro 202 Satin had substantial increases to the static and Kinetic CoFs. These increase were similar to the increase for the Pro Finisher Water Based Polyurethane from the previous trial.