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Toxics Use Reduction Institute




Surface Solutions Laboratory

Trial Report



Trial Number 20

(Client Number 244, Project Number 1)

Trial Purpose: To determine the coefficient of friction for additional floor finishes.

Date Run: 09/07/05

Experiment Procedure:
Control of Moisture Content and Temperature
The moisture content at the time of testing will influence results due to the hydroscopic nature of the base materials. Therefore, efforts must be taken to ensure that the moisture content and temperature remain constant during the evaluation period. Ideally, the sample floor should be kept at 65+/-1% relative humidity and 68+/-6 F.

During laboratory testing, conditions were slightly drier, 40% relative humidity, but the temperature was within the given temperature range ~70 F).

Sample Preparation
The flooring material supplied was Hardwood flooring made from Red Oak. The boards were ?? thick, 2 ?? wide and cut into 8? sections. Some pieces of the flooring had to be sanded prior to making initial thickness readings to remove residual packing tape adhesive. With the boards cut into 8? coupons, three readings were made using a Brown & Sharpe Micrometer to measure each coupons initial board thickness. Each reading was made to 0.001? and the three values were averaged to give a baseline thickness for the coupons. In addition to the thickness baseline, baselines were established for Gloss, Coefficient of Friction, Impact, Small Area Loads. Procedures for each baseline measurements followed the procedures to be outlined.

Following the establishment of the baselines, three coupons were coated with a supplied floor finish according to the manufacturers? specifications. The finish was applied using a 1? Pure Bristle 1500 paint brush. To ensure consistent coating application, the finish was leveled off using a 10 mils Precision Gage & Tool Co Dow Film Caster. Three coats were used for each floor finish as this was common number of coating layers suggested by the various manufacturers. Each coating layer was allowed to dry for 2 hours prior to the application of the next coat. Completed coupons were allowed to sit for a minimum period of 24 hours before performance evaluations were conducted.

Coefficient of Friction
The ASTM specified apparatus was replaced with an IMASS, Inc SP-102B-3M90 Slip/Peel Tester (Figure 1). Two types of friction coefficients were measured using this instrument. The first, Static CoF, was determined by obtaining the force required to move the specimen from a stationary position. The second, Sliding CoF (or Kinetic), was found by measuring the average force required to maintain movement at a certain rate. Measured forces will have peaks and valleys in the amount of force needed to keep moving. Average these values results and dividing by the weight of the object will result in the desired coefficient.

Figure 1. IMASS Slip/Peel Tester

The Slip/Peel tester was first adjusted to ensure that the device was properly calibrated for the sled weight being used. A coupon was then placed and clamped onto the bed of the device. The speed of the bed was set to 45?/min. The instrument records two values, the peak, the valley and calculates the average. The device was run three times per coupon for measuring the Static CoF and three times to measure the Kinetic CoF. Each coupon?s value was averaged and then the values for each finish (three coupon averages) were averaged to get one value for the Static Coefficient of Friction and one value for the Kinetic Coefficient of Friction. These values for coated samples were compared to the CoF for the same uncoated coupons.

Coefficient of Friction = Ratio of tractive (pulling) force to the normal force (sled weight): CoF = F/N = (Tractive force)/(Normal Force) = (meter reading)/(sled weight)

Trial Results
Uncoated CoF Readings
         Static                         Kinetic       
Coupon #  Peak      Valley  Average     Peak     Valley    Average
A         806       614       654       721       634       674
          796       641       662       751       652       693
          811       640       670       749       643       688
B         832       663       678       692       647       670
          813       649       669       694       644       670
          820       657       676       684       652       666
C         838       597       628       657       598       620
          849       607       635       646       575       618
          793       603       620       649       594       620
J         848       646       649       705       624       645
          752       639       644       681       622       642
          763       636       647       657       624       638
K         784       586       602       577       517       559
          758       564       571       583       550       569
          780       552       570       572       537       552
L         779       593       615       662       563       588
          797       577       600       625       569       588
          730       564       590       634       569       589

Averages - Kiilto
          Static                        Kinetic       
          Peak      Valley   Average    Pea       Valley   Average
          804       632       662       740       643       685
          822       656       674       690       648       669
          827       602       628       651       589       619
Overall   818       630       655       694       627       658
                                   
Averages ? Kiilto + Primer                                   
          788       640       647       681       623       642
          774       567       581       577       535       560
          769       578       602       640       567       588
Overall   777       595       610       633       575       597

Direct Comparison for All Products Tested
Final ? Initial                                  Static                   Kinetic       
                                                 Peak   Valley  Average   Peak   Valley  Average
Capitol Polyurethane Gloss                       136     182     216      248     212      223
Pro Finisher Water Based Polyurethane for floors 381      65     183      317      74      156
Pro Finisher Water Based Sanding Sealer           -8      43      62       77      46       54
Quide SA Aqua Deva Metro                          24      25      48       52      36       49
Capitol Hydro 202 Satin                          348     331     398      477     349      419
SafeCoat BP Satin                                158      40      78      114      63       71
SafeCoat BP Gloss                                306     103     212      414     169      238
Kiilto                                          -337    -266    -268     -277    -254     -271
Kiilto + Primer                                   63     -31      71      123     -50       48


Success Rating
A follow up test, usually based on company input.

Conclusion
The Kiilto was the only product to make the flooring more slippery than the flooring without any coatings.