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Toxics Use Reduction Institute · Surface Solutions Laboratory
 
Toxics Use Reduction Institute




Surface Solutions Laboratory

Trial Report



Trial Number 6

(Client Number 244, Project Number 1)

Trial Purpose: To determine the coefficient of friction for various floor finishes.

Date Run: 05/27/05

Experiment Procedure:
Control of Moisture Content and Temperature
The moisture content at the time of testing will influence results due to the hydroscopic nature of the base materials. Therefore, efforts must be taken to ensure that the moisture content and temperature remain constant during the evaluation period. Ideally, the sample floor should be kept at 65+/-1% relative humidity and 68+/-6 F.

During laboratory testing, conditions were slightly drier, 40% relative humidity, but the temperature was within the given temperature range ~70 F).

Sample Preparation
The flooring material supplied was Hardwood flooring made from Red Oak. The boards were ?? thick, 2 ?? wide and cut into 8? sections. Some pieces of the flooring had to be sanded prior to making initial thickness readings to remove residual packing tape adhesive. With the boards cut into 8? coupons, three readings were made using a Brown & Sharpe Micrometer to measure each coupons initial board thickness. Each reading was made to 0.001? and the three values were averaged to give a baseline thickness for the coupons. In addition to the thickness baseline, baselines were established for Gloss, Coefficient of Friction, Impact, Small Area Loads. Procedures for each baseline measurements followed the procedures to be outlined.

Following the establishment of the baselines, three coupons were coated with a supplied floor finish according to the manufacturers? specifications. The finish was applied using a 1? Pure Bristle 1500 paint brush. To ensure consistent coating application, the finish was leveled off using a 10 mils Precision Gage & Tool Co Dow Film Caster. Three coats were used for each floor finish as this was common number of coating layers suggested by the various manufacturers. Each coating layer was allowed to dry for 2 hours prior to the application of the next coat. Completed coupons were allowed to sit for a minimum period of 24 hours before performance evaluations were conducted.

Coefficient of Friction
The ASTM specified apparatus was replaced with an IMASS, Inc SP-102B-3M90 Slip/Peel Tester (Figure 1). Two types of friction coefficients were measured using this instrument. The first, Static CoF, was determined by obtaining the force required to move the specimen from a stationary position. The second, Sliding CoF (or Kinetic), was found by measuring the average force required to maintain movement at a certain rate. Measured forces will have peaks and valleys in the amount of force needed to keep moving. Average these values results and dividing by the weight of the object will result in the desired coefficient.

Figure 1. IMASS Slip/Peel Tester

The Slip/Peel tester was first adjusted to ensure that the device was properly calibrated for the sled weight being used. A coupon was then placed and clamped onto the bed of the device. The speed of the bed was set to 45?/min. The instrument records two values, the peak, the valley and calculates the average. The device was run three times per coupon for measuring the Static CoF and three times to measure the Kinetic CoF. Each coupon?s value was averaged and then the values for each finish (three coupon averages) were averaged to get one value for the Static Coefficient of Friction and one value for the Kinetic Coefficient of Friction. These values for coated samples were compared to the CoF for the same uncoated coupons.

Coefficient of Friction = Ratio of tractive (pulling) force to the normal force (sled weight): CoF = F/N = (Tractive force)/(Normal Force) = (meter reading)/(sled weight)

Trial Results
Product ID  Products Tested:
2           Capitol Polyurethane Gloss
3           Pro Finisher Water Based Polyurethane for floors
4           Pro Finisher Water Based Sanding Sealer
5           Quide SA Aqua Deva Metro

Uncoated CoF Readings
                 Static                  Kinetic     
Product  Coupon  Peak   Valley Average   Peak   Valley Average
2        52      848     562     606     614     538     571
                 767     529     581     640     543     586
                 778     538     583     619     530     575
         53      663     528     542     509     497     507
                 757     522     527     508     493     505
                 692     506     517     514     498     503
         54      783     532     535     544     499     526
                 801     523     525     518     481     505
                 730     568     514     513     479     499
3        55      764     538     549     533     519     516
                 733     526     506     523     501     512
                 713     518     532     515     493     507
         56      806     573     604     630     570     599
                 794     567     600     634     574     605
                 799     568     600     642     573     602
         57      780     556     573     555     514     533
                 758     546     559     558     544     545
                 742     546     553     540     511     522
4        58      778     567     597     591     528     563
                 739     576     592     577     527     554
                 761     560     565     592     540     558
         59      961     671     694     697     632     659
                 895     666     688     697     633     657
                 846     636     669     705     627     654
         60      774     536     560     582     516     533
                 800     521     542     569     512     527
                 708     534     536     567     505     525
5        61      871     558     584     572     515     544
                 850     543     560     567     520     539
                 819     563     563     565     514     538
         62      760     525     542     554     514     526
                 720     512     528     545     510     523
                 712     519     525     538     507     517
         63      803     617     650     622     608     611
                 756     625     630     617     589     606
                 718     610     613     612     605     602

Averages         Static                  Kinetic     
Product          Peak   Valley Average   Peak   Valley Average
2                798     543     590     624     537     577
                 704     519     529     510     496     505
                 771     541     525     525     486     510
Product Ave      758     534     548     553     506     531
3                737     527     529     524     504     512
                 800     569     601     635     572     602
                 760     549     562     551     523     533
Product Ave      765     549     564     570     533     549
4                759     568     585     587     532     558
                 901     658     684     700     631     657
                 761     530     546     573     511     528
Product Ave      807     585     605     620     558     581
5                847     555     569     568     516     540
                 731     519     532     546     510     522
                 746     594     602     600     574     585
Product Ave      775     556     568     571     534     549


Coated CoF Readings  
                 Static                  Kinetic     
Product  Coupon  Peak   Valley Average   Peak   Valley Average
2        52      1031     654     756     761     672     732
                  812     650     744     783     672     733
                  843     667     744     783     669     740
         53       829     725     756     758     742     749
                  816     736     758     799     734     758
                  829     740     753     752     742     748
         54      1126     765     813     873     756     773
                  875     754     780     853     741     780
                  879     754     771     850     741     772
3        55       860     550     559     603     534     560
                  815     556     560     590     549     557
                  763     547     563     594     540     556
         56      1961     674    1114    1425     650     892
                 1629     654    1033    1343     634     884
                 1597     640     966    1291     598     862
         57      1052     609     618     725     654     688
                  692     602     611     703     666     675
                  948     689     701     707     641     670
4        58       738     633     675     662     616     631
                  695     602     640     644     593     624
                  791     618     637     632     604     614
         59       869     656     698     763     624     662
                  901     659     691     748     625     659
                  898     650     670     766     616     654
         60       784     633     682     694     588     613
                  778     614     658     675     591     632
                  736     592     648     683     575     627
5        61       744     614     663     623     576     597
                  751     588     617     596     581     608
                  652     581     609     612     566     592
         62       832     612     653     673     574     623
                  870     566     628     644     601     606
                  823     608     620     649     580     602
         63       717     557     585     622     546     581
                 1001     550     583     578     564     601
                  800     550     582     610     538     576

Averages         Static                  Kinetic     
Product          Peak   Valley Average   Peak   Valley Average
2                895     657     748     776     671     735
                 825     734     756     770     739     752
                 960     758     788     859     746     775
Product Ave      893     716     764     801     719     754
3                813     551     561     596     541     558
                1729     656    1038    1353     627     879
                 897     633     643     712     654     678
Product Ave     1146     613     747     887     607     705
4                741     618     651     646     604     623
                 889     655     686     759     622     658
                 766     613     663     684     585     624
Product Ave      799     629     667     696     604     635
5                716     594     630     610     574     599
                 842     595     634     655     585     610
                 839     552     583     603     549     586
Product Ave      799     581     616     623     570     598


Summary Initial Uncoated CoF Readings                         
                               Static                  Kinetic     
                               Peak   Valley Average   Peak   Valley  Average
Capitol Polyurethane Gloss     758     534     548     553     506     531
Water Based Polyurethane       765     549     564     570     533     549
Water Based Sanding Sealer     807     585     605     620     558     581
Quide SA Aqua Deva Metro       775     556     568     571     534     549

Summary Final Coated CoF Readings                         
                               Static                  Kinetic     
                               Peak   Valley Average   Peak   Valley  Average
Capitol Polyurethane Gloss     893     716     764     801     719     754
Water Based Polyurethane      1146     613     747     887     607     705
Water Based Sanding Sealer     799     629     667     696     604     635
Quide SA Aqua Deva Metro       799     581     616     623     570     598

Comparison of Final & Initial Coefficient of Friction Values
                               Final - Initial                         
                               Static                  Kinetic     
                               Peak   Valley Average   Peak   Valley  Average
Capitol Polyurethane Gloss     136     182     216     248     212     223
Water Based Polyurethane       381      65     183     317      74     156
Water Based Sanding Sealer      -8      43      62      77      46      54
Quide SA Aqua Deva Metro        24      25      48      52      36      49


Success Rating
A cleanliness study, addressing only various analytical techniques.

Conclusion
The Pro Finisher Water Based Polyurethane had the highest peak Coefficient of Friction for both Static and Kinetic methods. The other water based products had limited improvement in the CoF.