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Trial Number 0

Trial Purpose:

The purpose of the experiment is to determine the relative rate of contaminant removal from the cloths by the detergent. This test method stimulates a uniform mechanical standard to properly utilize the solution.

Date Run:

03/10/2015

Experiment Procedure:

White cotton and white cotton polyester and purple nylon were soiled with the grass, clay, sebum and ball point ink. Grass soil was made by grinding the grass with soil at suggested composition and filtration. Each contaminant was soiled on three pieces of each type of cloth. Every piece of 4x5 in cloth was spread taut over a glass beaker and the soil was applied manually. Sample clothes were allowed to dry for a day and dirty gloss readings were taken. They were washed at 70 F for 12 min in the Terg-O-meter at an RPM of 90. One milliliter of detergent was added for 2 L of water. After washing, the cloths were rinsed in water and dried for a day. Color readings were taken at the end of the day. The second part of the experiment was to study the effect of the detergent on the color fastness of orange, blue and purple fabric. Each piece of cloth was washed for 15 cycles and color fastness was recorded in terms of gloss values. Final assessment was to look at the fabric texture and rate according to the table listed below.
The cleaning analysis was done by calculating the stain removal index.

SRI = 100 – ((Lc-Lw)2 +(ac –aw)2 + (bc-bw)2)1/2

where:
L = reflectance,
a = redness/greenness,
b = yellowness/blueness,
c = unstained fabric, washed in the treatment conditions,
w = stained fabric, washed in the treatment conditions.

Table Fabric Smoothness Grades by SA Replica Equivalents Description
Grade Observations
SA•5 Very smooth, pressed, finished appearance.
SA•4 Smooth, finished appearance.
SA•3.5 Fairly smooth but nonpressed appearance.
SA•3 Mussed, nonpressed appearance.
SA•2 Rumpled, obviously wrinkled appearance.
SA•1 Crumpled, creased and severely wrinkled appearance.

Trial Results:

Change in L value denotes the change in concentration of stain while a and b values denote the spectrum on blue and green shades in the sample. Thus these values denote the amount of stain that the detergent was capable of removing.

Thus the SRI for all the materials when the test was performed with test detergent is calculates as:
Table 2: Results from experimental detergent

Cloth Soil SRI Average
White Cotton Polyester Grass 90.15 82.94
  Clay 71.74  
  Sebum 88.53  
  Ink 81.33  
White Cotton Grass 85.23 71.63
  Clay 64.83  
  Sebum 48.87  
  Ink 87.58  
Purple Nylon Grass 91.08 88.31
  Clay 81.86  
  Sebum 89.24  
  Ink 91.04  

The SRI for all the materials when the test was performed with reference detergent is:

Cloth Soil SRI Average
White Cotton Polyester Grass 92.67 90.49
  Clay 90.34  
  Sebum 90.58  
  Ink 88.37  
White Cotton Grass 87.51 83.55
  Clay 83.76  
  Sebum 95  
  Ink 67.93  
Purple Nylon Grass 95.34 94.86
  Clay 99.25  
  Sebum 93.54  
  Ink 91.29  

The results of the color fastness test were as follows.

 

Table 4: Color fastness test of product detergent

  Initial reading Final reading Difference
  L a* b* L a* b* ∆L ∆a ∆b
Blue                  
  53.90 -5.83 -24.50 54.09 -5.52 -24.80 0.00 0.05 -0.01
  53.90 -5.66 -24.74 53.97 -5.42 -24.95 0.00 0.04 -0.01
  53.84 -5.74 -24.58 54.00 -5.41 -24.88 0.00 0.06 -0.01
  54.01 -5.73 -24.42 54.21 -5.52 -24.76 0.00 0.04 -0.01
Orange                  
  56.13 47.01 47.68 55.36 47.18 45.98 0.01 0.00 0.04
  56.08 47.61 48.42 54.64 46.90 45.36 0.03 0.02 0.06
  56.75 48.22 48.95 54.34 46.03 44.45 0.04 0.05 0.09
  56.53 48.31 48.98 53.84 45.90 44.30 0.05 0.05 0.10
Purple                  
  41.22 13.07 -25.03 39.80 13.39 -25.33 0.03 -0.02 -0.01
  40.23 12.98 -24.56 40.27 13.34 -25.32 0.00 -0.03 -0.03
  41.10 13.11 -24.93 40.53 13.10 -25.33 0.01 0.00 -0.02
  41.12 13.21 -25.04 40.90 13.25 -25.31 0.01 0.00 -0.01

Table 5: Color fastness test of reference detergent

  Initial reading Final reading Difference
  L a* b* L a* b* ∆L ∆a ∆b
Blue                  
  52.09 -5.670 -22.670 54.180 -5.680 -25.340 -0.040 -0.002 -0.118
  53.04 -5.700 -24.900 53.840 -5.640 -25.570 -0.015 0.010 -0.027
  54.2 -5.690 -24.690 83.820 -5.640 -25.010 -0.550 0.009 -0.013
  54.11 -5.710 -24.820 54.200 -5.630 -25.350 -0.002 0.014 -0.021
Orange                  
  57.74 47.270 47.700 56.040 48.380 49.270 0.030 -0.023 -0.032
  57.74 47.070 47.710 56.580 48.250 49.350 0.020 -0.025 -0.034
  57.79 47.020 47.570 56.480 48.280 48.970 0.023 -0.027 -0.029
  57.64 47.320 47.840 56.770 48.450 49.350 0.015 -0.024 -0.032
                   
Purple                  
  41.82 13.010 -25.130 41.200 13.290 -25.130 0.010 -0.020 0.000
  41.21 13.180 -24.260 40.180 13.140 -25.020 0.020 0.000 -0.030
  41.19 13.150 -24.630 41.290 13.110 -25.230 0.000 0.000 -0.020
  41 13.220 -25.140 41.110 13.280 -25.220 0.000 0.000 0.000

Average percent change in fabric color

Reference % Change    
  ∆L ∆a ∆b
Blue -0.287 4.743 -1.172
Orange 3.236 2.665 7.158
Purple 1.317 -1.362 -1.744
Supplied      
Blue 2.182 -2.481 -3.207
Orange -1.246 0.789 -4.475
Purple 0.868 -0.500 -1.472
Fabric Condition            
Product Reference     Supplied    
Fabric Orange Blue Purple Orange Blue Purple
Sample 1 4 5 4 4 5 2
Sample 2 5 5 3 4 5 2
Sample 3 4 5 4 3 5 3
Sample 4 4 5 4 3 4 3
Sample 5 5 4 3 3 5 2
Sample 6 5 4 4 4 5 2
Sample 7 4 5 4 4 3 3
Sample 8 5 5 3 3 3 2
Sample 9 5 4 4 4 3 3
Average 4.6 4.7 3.7 3.6 4.2 2.4
Overall Average 4.3     3.4    

Success Rating:

Results successful using TACT (time, agitation, concentration, and temperature, as well as rinsing and drying) and/or other cleaning chemistries examined.

Conclusion:

As can be seen from the experiment the supplied material was less effective in cleaning the soils than the reference product. The supplied product had an average SDI of  80.96 for all soils from the three fabrics as compared to 89.63 for the reference product. There was a small but insignificant change in the color readings before and after 15 cycles with both products fairing well. The reference product resulted in a slight loss of color from the orange fabric.  When the smoothness of the cloths after washing were manually determined and analyzed, it was concluded that the reference detergent leaves the fabric smoother with finished appearance (4.3), whereas the test detergent was only able to achieve a fairly smooth but non pressed appearance (3.4).

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